Thursday, December 26, 2019
People who have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder are usually on a regimen of mood stabilizers. According to the study published by Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical Experimental those who suffer from mental illness are regularly prescribed many psychotropic medications, yet to get effective treatment the patient must adhere to the regimen (Bauer et al., 2010). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the daily amount of medications that the patient took was associated with the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s self-reported adherence of taking a mood stabilizer (Bauer et al., 2010). The methods used were data collection in which 312 patients with bipolar disorder had to document sleep, mood, and the medications like lithium or valproate thatÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Bipolar disorder is a serious chronic mental illness that can change the way individuals think, perceive and remember information. According to the study done by Cognitive Therapy Research, negative attributional s tyles and maladaptive attitudes can bring out a depressive state especially if one is encountering a stressful life event (Reilly-Harrington et al., 2010). The purpose of this study was to examine how patients with bipolar disorder enrolled in the Ã¢â¬Å"Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD)Ã¢â¬ think and perceive information and how that correlates to the measures of manic and depressive symptoms (Reilly-Harrington et al., 2010). Thus, two measures of cognitive styles such as Ã¢â¬Å"Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS) and the Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ)Ã¢â¬ as well as mood assessments were needed to be completed by 395 out of 500 bipolar patients (Reilly-Harrington et al., 2010). DAS assessed whether the individual supported dysfunctional attitudes such as Ã¢â¬Å"I am nothing if a person I love doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t love me backÃ¢â¬ by rating on a Ã¢â¬Å"7 point Degree of Belief scaleÃ¢â¬ (Reilly-Harrington et al., 2010, p. 27). Me anwhile, ASQ assessed the attributions for six positive and six negative theoretical eventsShow MoreRelatedEssay Bipolar Disorder1447 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBipolar Disorder Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness affects about 1.2 percent of the U.S. population (8). It is defined by fluctuating states of depression and mania throughout ones life. Those who are depressed may be restless, irritable, have slowed thinking or speech, decreased sexual activity, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, suicidal thoughts as well as other changes. Those in a manic state may have increased activity or energy, more thoughts and faster thinkingRead MoreBipolar Disorder Essay1615 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBipolar disorder, also commonly referred to as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual and heightened swings in a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mood, energy level, and ability to function. The symptoms of bipolar disorder can be severe and therefore, they are quite different from the normal shifts in mood that everyone goes through on a daily basis. The effects of bipolar disorder can result in broken relationships, poor performance at wor k or school, self-mutilation, and even suicide. HoweverRead MoreBipolar Disorder Essay844 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBipolar disorder also known as manic depression has always been a mystery since the 16th century. History has shown that it can appear in almost everyone. Bipolar disorder causes mood swings in energy, thinking, and other behavior. Having a bipolar disorder can be very disabling (Kapczinski). A study was evaluated and about 1.3% of the U.S population of people suffers from bipolar disorder. Stressors and environmental influences can trigger and cause a person to go through numerous episodes. BipolarRead More Bipolar Disorder and the Essay979 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBipolar Disorder and the War on Drugs Bipolar disorder, also known as, manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that results in unusual shifts in a persons mood, energy, and ability to function. More than two million American adults (or, about one per cent of the population aged eighteen and older in any given year) are afflicted by this affective disorder (1). Yet, because it cannot be revealed by a blood test or other physiological means, patients may suffer for years before it isRead MoreBipolar Disorder Essay1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Furthermore, inflammation is linked with bipolar disorder and can explain some of the comorbidities such as diabetes, heart disease, and obesity, that result in decreased life expectancy. Inflammatory molecules are produced in the periphery by immune cells such as helper T cells and macrophages, in response to pathogens or cell damage. The proinflammatory molecules produced in the body can stimulate the microglia and other neuroimmune cells, by entering the brain through regions where the bloodRead MoreEssay on Bipolar Disorder 1279 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMental illness comes in many forms one of the most prevalent forms facing people today is depression. The realm of depression encompasses many different types and forms, some of these are, Seasonal Affect Disorder commonly called SAD, Bipolar Disorder, Postpartum, Chronic Depression, and situational depression to name a few. When many people think about depression they think about a person who is stereotypically down on life. Howev er they donÃ¢â¬â¢t see the people who suffer from extreme highs, as wellRead MoreEssay on bipolar disorder502 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Bipolar Disorder also known as Manic Depressive Illness involves outstanding mood swings. The individual has periods of depression, and periods when they feel either unusually good or pressured and irritable. It affects 1-2% of the population. Genetics plays a significant role. About 15% of children with one bipolar parent develop the disorder. Treatments include medication, supportive psychotherapy and occasionally ECT. Medications include lithium, anticonvulsant drugs (carbamazepine (Tegretol)Read MoreBipolar Disorder Essay1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThere are many factors that influence the treatment outcomes of individuals experiencing bipolar disorder. Demographic variables such as gender, socioeconomic status, and ex-offender status may have an impact on an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s overall perspective towards mental health, thus affecting the willingness to seek treatment and overall outcomes. Recent research examined the relationship between gender differences and counseling outcomes and found both genders responded positively to psychotherapy (WatsonRead MoreEssay on Bipolar Disorder1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBipolar Disorder The aspect of bipolar disorder has been a mystery since the 16th century. It was rumored that Vincent Van Gough suffered from bipolar disorder. There is a large group of people suffering from this disorder, however there are no causes or cures for it. Bipolar disorder impairs oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to obtain and sustain social and occupational success. The journey for even a cause will continue for many years to come. Affective disorders are characterized by a depressedRead MoreBipolar Disorder Essay1351 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬â¹Bipolar Disorder, also known as a manic depressive illness, is classified as a brain disorder; that causes unusual shifts in the mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry-out day to day tasks. The majority of bipolar individuals experience alternating episodes of mania such as an elevated or euphoric mood or irritable state (US Department of Health 1) (Thackey 127). Bipolar Disorder falls under the category of a mood disorder, 3% of the general population suffers from bipolar disorder
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Essays on Issues of Relativity and Evolution Assignment The paper "Issues of Relativity and Evolution" is a wonderful example of an assignment on science. Scientific discovery plays a significant role in the development of human culture. In the twentieth century, developments in quantum physic had significant impact on American societies. Americans became the first witnesses of the potentials of modern physic. Indeed, quantum physic had a cultural larger cultural effect than the Darwin theory of natural selection. Unlike the dawnÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of natural selection, American scholars developed most of the quantum theories, with Einstein being the leading scientist. Furthermore, quantum physics had a significant influence on World War II and the cold war, and the rise of the information age. These occurrences transformed the views of ordinary Americans on science and inventions. SputnikSputnik 1 was the first manmade object to be launched into an orbit around the earth by the Soviet Union. The satellite came as a surprise to the Americans and it has sparked the so-called Sputnik crisis. This was followed by the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Indeed, the launch did promote fear among Americans. Lack of efficient communication systems led people into believing that the Soviets had ill motives against the Americans. However, the launch stimulated hope among the scientist concerning successful launches. The last Apollo mission happened in 1972, exactly 15 years after the launch of sputnik. The 15-year period remains the most vibrant period in history in terms of scientific discovery and the advancement of space technology. Indeed, the period brought unity among Americans. Big ScienceBig sciences have a role in the achievement of larger scientific endeavors. The big science projects, attempt to provide a response to the big scientific questions that have evaded scientists for years. Consequently, the projects have popularized science. In particular, Big Sciences have sparked interests among young scholars. For instance, NASA activities, the latest being the Curiosity Project on Mars, have attracted millions of people across the globe. Other projects such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider have immense potential in the development of science. Science FictionAs a genre, science fiction often incorporates visions of utopia, dystopia, or uneasiness regarding the role of science within society. For instance, the movie Armitage II depicts a world controlled by cyborgs. The movie raises fears on future developments in science particularly robotics and space science. In another movie The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951), the filmmaker illustrates the impact of space-age on humanity. This movie raises the big question of astronomy. Are we alone in the universe?
Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Strategic Marketing for Promotional Campaigns Nestle. Answer: Introduction: Nestle is very active in its promotional campaign and remain in the media limelight. There has been no recent new-product launch by the company. However, the company actively operates the website of the company. These approaches help the company to reach their target customers easily. The recent approach made by the company as a part of their promotional campaign is regarding the concerns related to health issues. Nestle has targeted the youth as well as young parents. In its recent promotional activity, Nestle has come up with the promotional campaign, Creativity Reinvents The Classic, featuring the Grammy award-winning music creator will.i.am (nestle.com.au). The motive behind this campaign is to increase the awareness for fitness to stay energetic and vibrant. Nestle has also turned the attention of parents towards healthy living habits of their children. As a part of the Raising Nutrition Savvy Kids, the company did a campaign and asked more than 1300 parents about their knowledge of child nutrition (nestle.com.au). The campaign highlighted the fact that majority of parents do not understand the importance of healthy habit among their children. Additionally, the parents were also taught to cook healthy food. It can be said that the promotional approach used by the company are very impactful because the products sold by the company include coffee, chocolate, fast foods like noodles, snacks and others are the food substances whose major consumers can be regarded as the youth aged between 20 and 40 years (Alden et al. 2013). Therefore, the promotional campaigns are rightly targeted with right approach. If the promotional campaign of Peters chocolate is compared with the campaign of Nestle, it can be said that the former company focuses more on its product rather than the social concern whereas Nestle always come up with such promotional campaigns that highlight certain issues related to social concern (Czinkota and Ronkainen 2013). Health concerns have been increasing among the consumers. Keeping the same perspective in mind, the company has aimed at people between the age of 20 and 45 years who are lovers of coffee as well. Therefore, it can be said that the company has been targeting its consumers rightly by highlighting recent societal or environmental factors (Meissner 2012). These promotional campaigns can be regarded as one of the major reason that has helped the company to market its product worldwide. The company has been operating in major countries and has been able to compete with the major other companies like Peter, Cadbury and others. Reaching the target group of cons umers using the best possible marketing strategies can help the company to improve their marketing activities (Czinkota and Ronkainen 2013). Impact of worldwide demographic trends on the opportunities for international marketing: Past few decades have witnessed major transformation in the urban dwellers around the world. More and more cities have been evolving with increase in the wealth and power. If urban culture is taken into consideration, it has invited innovation, wealth, talent and creativity. The turbulent nature of the global environment is creating a huge influence on the performance of business. A greying population or a more ethnically diverse brings the opportunity of new demands in the consumer market (Song, Srensen and Yan 2016). These changes have greatly demanded changes in the life style and the work values from one person to another. Greater cultural awareness and the skills of better communication skill have opened the opportunity of better marketing in the international market. There has been increasing impact of social networking sites like Facebook and Twitter that has changed the way of marketing and advertisement in the recent situation. As pointed out by Terpstra Foley and Sarath (2012), that even the politicians from around the world are using the social media platform for their promotional events. These strategies are highly successful because social media platform gives the opportunity of instant feedback from the receivers end. Industries that are set to benefits from the ageing baby boomers: Major industries that gains benefit from the ageing baby boomers belongs to those that operates with the help of internet. With the increasing impact of internet and increasing globalization, connectivity has become very easy. There has been an increase of e-commerce business as well. Online shopping sites like Amazon, eBay, Flipkart and many others to name are utilizing this platform to increase their business (Whitbourne and Willis 2014). Other industries that are set to get benefits from the ageing baby include: Property business: Song, Srensen and Yan (2016) commented that home ownership is very common among the baby boomers. He further added that it is one of the encouraging factors among the baby boomers to own a house. Therefore, there is a great chance in the increase of property business. Health care industries: The baby boomers are very conscious about their health and it has been found that majority of people are investing in the health care. This has lead to the changes in the thinking and approaches made by the government. Therefore, this industry is also increasing (Meissner 2012). Travel industry: The baby boomers are also fond of travelling. It has been estimated that there will be an increase in the travel industry by almost 26%. It is also expected that there is an increasing approach of one night stay at different locations. These approaches automatically increase the chance of travel and tourism industry. Aged-care facilities: With the retirement of the ageing baby boomers, there shall be increasing aged-care facilities as well. There will be an increasing demand of care facilities and retirement villages. Financial planning: Superannuation funds and other financial services have been gaining much importance in the recent perspective. As pointed out by Alden et al. (2013), that the baby boomers are greatly concerned about their financial services and tends to seek financial funds to maximize their income. It is for this reason, the financial planning sector has great opportunity tom prosper in the coming years. References: Alden, D.L., Kelley, J.B., Riefler, P., Lee, J.A. and Soutar, G.N., 2013. The effect of global company animosity on global brand attitudes in emerging and developed markets: does perceived value matter?.Journal of International Marketing,21(2), pp.17-38. Czinkota, M.R. and Ronkainen, I.A., 2013.International marketing. Cengage Learning. Meissner, H.G., 2012.Strategic international marketing. Springer Science Business Media. nestle.com.au. 2016.Home. [online] Available at: https://www.nestle.com.au/ [Accessed 30 Aug. 2016]. Peterschocolate.com. 2016.Peter's Chocolate. [online] Available at: https://www.peterschocolate.com/ [Accessed 30 Aug. 2016]. Song, Y., Srensen, S. and Yan, E.C., 2016. Family Support and Preparation for Future Care Needs Among Urban Chinese Baby Boomers.The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, p.gbw062. Terpstra, V., Foley, J. and Sarathy, R., 2012.International marketing. Naper Press. Whitbourne, S.K. and Willis, S.L., 2014.The baby boomers grow up: Contemporary perspectives on midlife. Psychology Press.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Sk Ii Executive Summary Essay EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: This case examines PG and whether or not it has the ability and means to make SK-II a global brand. Paul de Cesare, President of Max Factor Japan and GLT member of the beauty care GBU, had to recommend one of three alternatives for a global strategy for the SK-II brand: expand into China, build on the brandÃ¢â¬â¢s success in Japan, or introduce SK-II to Europe. In doing so, he also had to keep entry strategies for the different markets in mind, and also the organizational change brought about by O2005. e Cesare should recommend the option of growing the SK-II brand in the Japanese market (where it has only 3% share of the $10B beauty market), and introduce the product into major cities of mainland China. In deciding upon which market to enter, two factors are important: 1. The individual country factors must be analyzed and compared with the core competencies of the PG organization. 2. One must understand what the effects of entering new markets will have on the newly created strategic organizational structure of PG under the O2005 plan Overview: The core competencies of SK-II can be replicated easily in the Asian market (Table 1, Appendix, page 6) Ã¢â¬ ¢ The European market has different preferences than the Asian market and very different competitive conditions. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Market share of SK-II is still low in Asia. The promise of success as shown by large growth in Japan, home to AsiaÃ¢â¬â¢s most sophisticated beauty product consumers, necessitates that the focus should be on this region. However, with the new organizational structure of PG supporting the widespread sale of its successful products, an attempt at entry into the European/ UK market might provide clues of expansion into other Western markets. SK-II: Sources of Success Ã¢â¬ ¢ Well researched and developed product, provides the multi-step process desired in the sophisticated beauty product market of Japan Ã¢â¬ ¢ Service at the counter is strong, leading to customer loyalty
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Motion Motion-sensing Game Controllers Essay Mara Drake-Shoffner Mr. Morgan Business Software 1A September 23, 2013 From One Controller to Another Video games and computer games use a game controller as the input device that directs movements and actions of on-screen objects. Two commonly used game controllers are gamepads and motion-sensing game controllers. Game controllers not only enrich the gaming experience but also aid in the movements and actions of the players. A gamepad is held by the player with both hands, allowing the player to control the movement or actions of the objects in the video or computer games. Players press buttons on the gamepad, often with their thumbs, to carry out actions. Some gamepads have swiveling sticks that also can trigger events during game play . Some gamepads include wireless capabilities; others connect via a cable directly to the game console or a personal computer. Motion-sensing game controllers allow the user to guide on-screen elements or trigger events by moving a handheld input device in predetermined directions through the air. These controllers communicate with a game console or personal computer via wired or wireless technology. A variety of games, from sports to simulations, use motion-sensing game controllers. Some of these controllers, such as baseball bats and golf clubs, are designed for only one specific kind of game; others are general purpose. A popular, general purpose, motion-sensing game controller is NintendoÃ¢â¬â¢s Wii Remote. Shaped like a television
Saturday, November 23, 2019
Draft, Develop, and Organize a Descriptive Paragraph Once you have settled on a topic for your descriptive paragraph and collected some details, youre ready to put those details together in a rough draft. Lets look at one way of organizing a descriptive paragraph. A Three-Step Method for Organizing a Descriptive Paragraph Heres a common way of organizing a descriptive paragraph. Begin the paragraph with a topic sentence that identifies your prized belonging and briefly explains its significance to you.Next, describe the item in four or five sentences, using the details that you listed after probing your topic.Finally, conclude the paragraph with a sentence that emphasizes the personal value of the item. There are various ways to organize the details in a descriptive paragraph. You may move from the top of the item to the bottom, or from the bottom to the top. You may start at the left side of the item and move right, or go from right to left. You may start with the outside of the item and move in, or go from inside to out. Choose the one pattern that seems best suited to your topic, and then stick to that pattern throughout the paragraph. A Model Descriptive Paragraph: My Tiny Diamond Ring The following student paragraph, titled My Tiny Diamond Ring, follows the basic pattern of topic sentence, supporting sentences, and conclusion: On the third finger of my left hand is the pre-engagement ring given to me last year by my sister Doris. The 14-carat gold band, a bit tarnished by time and neglect, circles my finger and twists together at the top to encase a small white diamond. The four prongs that anchor the diamond are separated by pockets of dust. The diamond itself is tiny and dull, like a sliver of glass found on the kitchen floor after a dishwashing accident. Just below the diamond are small air holes, intended to let the diamond breathe, but now clogged with grime. The ring is neither very attractive nor valuable, but I treasure it as a gift from my older sister, a gift that I will pass along to my younger sister when I receive my own engagement ring this Christmas. An Analysis of the Model Description Notice that the topic sentence in this paragraph not only identifies the belonging (a pre-engagement ring) but also implies why the writer treasures it (. . . given to me last year by my sister Doris). This kind of topic sentence is more interesting and revealing than a bare announcement, such as, The belonging I am about to describe is my pre-engagement ring. Instead of announcing your topic in this way, focus your paragraph and gain the interest of your readers with a complete topic sentence: one that both identifies the object youre about to describe and also suggests how you feel about it. Once you have introduced a topic clearly, you should stick to it, developing this idea with details in the rest of the paragraph. The writer of My Tiny Diamond Ring has done just that, providing specific details that describe the ring: its parts, size, color, and condition. As a result, the paragraph is unifiedthat is, all of the supporting sentences relate directly to one another and to the topic introduced in the first sentence. You shouldnt be concerned if your first draft doesnt seem as clear or as well constructed as My Tiny Diamond Ring (the result of several revisions). Your aim now is to introduce your belonging in a topic sentence and then draft four or five supporting sentences that describe the item in detail. In later steps of the writing process, you can focus on sharpening and rearranging these sentences as you revise. NEXT STEPPractice in Organizing a Descriptive Paragraph REVIEWSupporting a Topic Sentence with Specific Details ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF WELL-ORGANIZED DESCRIPTIONS Model Descriptive ParagraphsModel Place Descriptions: Four Descriptive ParagraphsJoseph Mitchells Place Description: McSorleys SaloonWillie Morriss Descriptive Narrative RETURN TOHow to Write a Descriptive Paragraph
Thursday, November 21, 2019
ABOUT CULTURE( ANTROPOLOGY) - Essay Example Gender-roles were defined as expectations regarding the proper behaviour, attitudes and activities of males and females. The application of traditional gender roles leads to many differentiation between men and women. Both sexes are physically capable of leaning to cook and sew, yet most western societies determine that these tasks should be performed by women. Both men and women are capable of learning to weld metal and fly airplanes but these functions are generally assigned to males. All of us can describe the traditional gender-role patterns which have been influential in the socialization of children and the United States. Male babies get blue blankets while females get pink one. Boys are expected to play with trucks, blocks and toy soldiers; girls are given dolls and kitchen goods. Boys must be masculine Ã¢â¬â active, aggressive, tough, daring and dominant Ã¢â¬â whereas girls must be feminine Ã¢â¬â soft, emotional, sweet and submissive. Boys are socialized to think that they are invulnerable, fearless, decisive and even emotionless in some situations. These are difficult standards to meet; yet, for boys who does not Ã¢â¬Å"measure upÃ¢â¬ life can be trying. This is especially true for boys who show an interest in activities thought of as feminine such as cooking or for those who do not enjoy traditional masculine activities such as competitive sports. Women are portrayed to be more religious and spiritual. They are the ones who continuously ask for divine guidance when the family experiences suffering or hardships. Aside from this, women are also depicted to be very keen in keeping up with the traditions or rituals required of their religion. In any society, gender socialization and stratification requires not only individual socialization into traditional gender roles within the family, but also the promotion and support of these traditional roles by other social institutions such as religion and education. Moreover, even with all the major
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Supercomputers - Research Paper Example a. The first supercomputer was put to use at Columbia University between 1954 and 1963 to find missile trajectories. The supercomputer was known as the IBM Naval Ordnance Research Calculator capable of performing 15,000 operations per second (Columbia University, 2013). c. Xie et al. (2010) emphasize that evolution in computer components facilitated the development of supercomputers. Beginning with an early stage development, it evolved into vector supercomputer stage then flourished to massive parallel processing supercomputer stage and then evolved further to the cluster stage. Ever since late 60s, the performance of supercomputers has improved almost 10 times per spell of four years surpassing even Moores law. Advantages of supercomputers are speed, accuracy, and capability to charter in unknown territories such as space-research, discovering genomes coding that are otherwise very difficult to perform. On disadvantages side, its high cost and huge power consumption can be cited. High power consumption leads to heat generation that in turn, increases frequent replacement of the important parts increasing its maintenance cost. Due to fast advances in computer field todayÃ¢â¬â¢s supercomputer can be redundant as time passes by (Newman, 2011). 1. An IBM system installed at the U.S. Department of EnergyÃ¢â¬â¢s Los Alamos National Laboratory in 2008 is able to compute at the rate of 1.026 petaflop per second. The system is nicknamed as "Roadrunner". It is important to note that this is one of the most energy efficient systems during the time. The Square-Kilometer Array (SKA) project aims at developing the largest radio telescope in the world for space research. This will be done by establishing a series of hundreds of smaller radio telescopes in the area of one-square kilometer. The purpose is to gather a vast amount of data extensively deep into the space. This will unfold how galaxies evolve and secrets about dark matter and
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The World That Trade Created Essay The topic of The World That Trade Created by Kenneth Pomeranz and Steven Topik is mostly dealing with society, culture and economy. The book takes place all over the world from 1400 to present. The time periods are so interesting because it relates to the modern day economy. It also shapes how our economy came to be, where these ideal strategies for industry and etcetera originated- the cultural and traditional background of societies first using these tactics- and an overall extensive, lively history of economics. The modern day results in success and that is helpful for readers living within the new age society. Corporations are widely discussed today and take on a big role in the growing debate about the role of corporations should have in society today. Ã¢â¬Å"Why did the seventeenth- century Europeans create the worlds first corporations?Ã¢â¬ demanded Pomeranz and Topik. Ã¢â¬Å"looking back from 2005 the answer seems obvious: the corporation seems like such a logical way to do business..Ã¢â¬ but corporations had a violent birth. The first corporations didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have a permanent life, nor did they self-liquidate. Other Europeans, like- Middle East, India, South East Asia, Japan and China all through the eighteenth century had no need for the corporate form. Northern Europeans would need to seize and fortify and arm ships to patrol the waters, to be in play with the Asians. Europe however couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t create monopolies. After years of conflict and many revolts by shareholders who wanted the company to wind down rather than grow, the company was re-chartered rather than liquidated after twenty-one years, the directors got the flexibility to lower dividends (amongst partners) when they needed to build up capital, and Dutch investors learned to operate like shareholders today.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ The idea of companies that took care of their own protections costs did not last, of course.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"by the 1830Ã¢â¬â¢s all these companies had collapsed, and their colonies had been taken over by governments-just as a new era of capital-intensive industry was about to create more productive uses or the corporate form that they had pioneered.Ã¢â¬ The World That Trade Created is a history of society, culture, and economics. It taps in tp the painful and brutal truth of our global economy system. Modern world emerges with varied foods, advanced societies, a background of poverty and violence and monopolies and so on and so forth. The society aspect touches base on the trade of slaves. These slaves would mine necessities like gold, silver, cotton, tobacco, coffee, tea, sugar and rubber on plantations in different regions. Culture like Christianity came ion hand with the law. Culture and central planning were works in progress acting on one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s evolutionary development. The economy of it all deals with so many trade tactics. It helps readers understand that economic activity cannot be divorced from social and cultural contexts. It was made from flesh and blood to its relevance today. The relevancy of the books information today outlines moral economy and how its being held somewhat fair today. It also relates to market economy to understand our world. Nature and culture continue to transform economics today. As much understanding there is of economics it is still playing out and unwinding today. It continues to have situations that need fixing and is still being debated over today. Economy ultimately impacts society.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
Turnitin Sucks It's with a great deal of interest that I've been following the most recent uproar in the blogoshpere about Turnitin.com and about whether or not higher ed is taking the proverbial low ground in the ethical battles by the increasing use of Turnitin. It is my opinion and always has been that there is something fundamentally wrong with the whole process of requiring students to turn in their work to the plagiarism police. I think this graphic from the Honk Kong Polytechnic University is especially humorous. I didn't have their permission to show it on my site so I created my own sign at the Ronald McHummer site. About 2-3 years ago we had the conversation on campus about whether we should license (or is it subscribe to) the Turnitin service. Of course there were some people who were in favor of it, but the majority was put off by the same things that have always bothered me about the deal. The arguments at that time against using Turnitin appear to still be the main arguments. In no particular order, they include: "I am currently taking a course that requires me to submit my papers to Turnitin. My objection to Turnitin is that they are not only infringing my copyright, but that they are doing so for commercial profit. If they want to make money from storing my paper in a database, they should pay me for a license." (EricSmith comment on Slashdot) "Why are we violating authorial integrity to teach students that violating authorial integrity is wrong?" (by Bob, first comment) "can shift attention away from teaching students how to avoid plagiarism in the first place. In Ã¢â¬Å"Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism: The WPA Statement on Best Practices,Ã¢â¬ the Council of Writing Program Administrators urges teachers to Ã¢â¬Å"use plagiarism detection services cautiously,Ã¢â¬ for they should Ã¢â¬Å"never be used to justify the avoidance of responsible teaching methods.Ã¢â¬ "I find it more than a bit ironic, that this company works with WebCT and Blackboard, who argue that one should use Course Managment software to protect student's privacy (alah FERPA) when turnitin.com fundamentally violates student's rights." (Dave, Sept. 7, 18:05) "It's just like music composition. People with similar music education backgrounds end up producing similar music. That's just how it is. Are you seriously going to argue that the standard educational texts HAVEN'T been mined for every bloody original idea they contain a thousand times over?" (read the whole comment by Cadallin)
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
The desk exerts an upward force on the book that is equal in magnitude to the gravitational force. Draw a free-body diagram of the book. 7. Draw a free-body diagram of a football being kicked. Assume that the only forces acting on the ball are the force due to gravity and the force exerted by the kicker. 8. Draw a free-body diagram for each of the following objects (show size of force with big or small arrow): a. A projectile accelerating downward in the presence of air resistance. B. A crate being pushed across a flat surface at a constant speed. 9. Define Equilibrium. 10.Can an object be in equilibrium if only one force acts on the object? 1. If an object is at rest, can we conclude that no external forces are acting on it? 12. An keg car is moving at a constant speed of 1. Mom/s. What is the net force on the car? 13. If a car is traveling west with a constant velocity of mom/s, what is the net force acting on the car? 14. If a car is accelerating downhill under a net force of NON, what additional force would cause the car to have a constant velocity? 15. Is it possible for an object to be in motion if no net force is acting on it?Explain. 16. An object thrown into the air stops at the highest point in its path. Is it in equilibrium at his point? Explain. 17. A large ball is placed on a bed off truck but is not tied down. A. Explain why it is wrong to say, Ã¢â¬Å"as the truck accelerates forward, the ball slides across the bed until it hits the tailgate. Ã¢â¬ b. If the driver slammed on the brakes, what would happen to the ball? 18. A space explorer is moving through space far from any planet or star and notices a large rock, taken as a specimen from an alien planet floating around the cabin of the ship.Should the explorer push it gently or kick it toward the storage compartment? Why? 19. Identify the action-reaction pairs in the following situations: a. A person takes a step. B. A snowball hits someone in the back. C. A baseball player catches a ball. D. A gust of wind strikes a window. 20. If a small sports car collides head-on with a massive truck, which vehicle experiences the greater impact force? Which vehicle experiences the greater acceleration? Explain. 21 . Explain why a rope climber must pull downward on the rope in order to move upward. Part Two: Constructing Responses 22.The force that attracts Earth to an object is equal to and opposite to the force that Earth exerts on the object. Explain (in a 3-step AES) why Earths' acceleration is not equal to and opposite the object's acceleration? 23. When a tablecloth is pulled out from underneath a cup and plate, the cup and plate stay on the table. Why? Explain (in a 3-step AES) why this is using Newton's 1st Law of Motion. Part Three: Easy Problem Solving 24. What is the net force on a stapler if Ms Buick pulls it with a force of NON to the left and John pulled it NON to the right?Which way did the stapler go? 25. In a tug of war competition, Sally pulled NON east along with B obby who pulled NON east. If their opponent Tyler pulled with a force of NON and Jason NON west, who team won? 26. A owe boat is being propelled with a force of NON north by the rowers, but the water current pushes south on the boat with a force of NON. If the wind also pushes north with a force of NON, find the net force (including direction) on the boat. 27. A broken down car has a mass of 1 keg and is accelerated at a rate of 1. Mm/so by several people pushing.With what force do the people push the car? 28. A 6. Egg object undergoes an acceleration of 2. Mm/so. What is the magnitude of the net force acting on the object? 29. The net force on the propeller of a 3. Egg model airplane is 7. AN forward. What is the acceleration of the airplane? 0. A soccer ball kicked with a force of 13. AN accelerates at 6. Mm/so to the right. What is the mass of the ball? 31 . The net force on a golf cart is NON north. If the cart has a total mass of keg, what are the magnitude and direction of the cart's acceleration? 2. A car has a mass of 1. 50x103kg. If the force acting on the car is 6. Xenon to the east, what is the car's acceleration? 33. A bag of sugar has a mass of 2. Keg. Determine its mass and weight onÃ¢â¬ ¦ A) Ã¢â¬ ¦ On Earth b) Ã¢â¬ ¦ On the moon c) Ã¢â¬ ¦ On Jupiter (g-?25. Mm/so) 34. A 3. Keg briefcase is sitting at rest on a flat floor. A. What is the briefcase's net acceleration? B. What is its weight in Newton's? Part Four: Medium Problem Solving 35. Two forces are applied in the same direction to a car in an effort to accelerate it, Fl=NON, IF=301 N a.What is the resultant of these two forces? B. If the car has a mass of keg, what acceleration does it have? 36. Due to the airplanes engines a keg airplane is pushed forward with a force of NANNY, if the wind pushes back on the plane with a force of NANNY, what is the net acceleration of the plane? 37. What is the mass of a sailboat which is accelerating at mom/so that is shushed by the wind with a force o f NON and the current of water in the same direction with a force of 21 ON? 38.What is the acceleration of a keg boy and bicycle which is pedaled with a force of NON, and overcomes a frictional force of NON? (friction is always in the opposite direction of the motion) 39. A 5. Egg bucket of water is raised from a well by a rope. If the upward acceleration of the bucket is 3. Mm/so, find the force exerted by the rope on the bucket of water? (You must consider gravity in this! ) Part Five: Hard Problem Solving 40. The forces acting on a sailboat are NON north and NON east.If the boat has a mass of keg, what are the magnitude and direction of the boat's acceleration? 41 . Four forces act on a keg hot-air balloon, shown here. Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant acceleration on the balloon. Part Six: Difficult Problem Solving 42. Kathy and Jim are pulling a box of physics equipment with an acceleration of 0. Mom/so. If they are pulling with a force of NON 200 above the hori zontal, what is the mass of the box? 43. A keg box is pulled by Ms Buick with a force of NON at an angle of 250 above the horizontal. What is the acceleration of the box?
Sunday, November 10, 2019
A Civilized Society What is the meaning of a society? A historian might say a society is a group of people living in an ordered community that has a hierarchy. An adult might say that a society is a community of people that have certain jobs and a community that has schools for their children to go to. A child might not even know what the meaning of society is. Their answers differ because there is not a book written in history that clearly defines what a society is. But when Ã¢â¬Å"societyÃ¢â¬ is narrowed down into Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬ society, it is here that agreements are distinguished.Most people agree that the time and place they live in at this present moment is civilized, even though spirits are still believed in. This also means that time periods that are not considered Ã¢â¬Å"civilizedÃ¢â¬ in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s terms, are considered civilized to the people living in that time period. In the book Beowulf, a book written in the seventh or eight century by an anonymous au thor, there are two societies, the Danes, who reside in Denmark, and the Geats, who reside in southern Sweden.This book is named after a person; not surprisingly, this person is named Beowulf, a Geat who later becomes the king of the Geats. The Anglo-Saxon society in the book Beowulf is civilized because they believe in monsters and their leaders and group members have clear expectations. One might be surprised that a civilized society believes in monsters, however, even societies today believe in monsters through television. Societies today create horror movies purely for entertainment; however, it is a known fact that the monsters in the horror movies are not real.On that note, the anonymous author of Beowulf may have written the book purely for the entertainment of his people, all the while knowing that monsters do not exist, after all, it is probably the closest thing his society has to watching a horror movie. Grendel, the first monster Beowulf fights, is Ã¢â¬Å"conceived by a pair of those monsters born of Cain (105-106). Ã¢â¬ This is physically impossible because Cain is a human and Grendel is an actual monster in the book.Another fact that Beowulf was written for entertainment purposes is the fact that the author uses suspension of disbelief, meaning that the readers believe things that are impossible in real for the sake of enjoying the book. For example, Ã¢â¬Å"[Beowulf] sank through the wavesÃ¢â¬ ¦(1495)Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"for hoursÃ¢â¬ ¦(1495)Ã¢â¬ to fight GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Ã¢â¬Å"the mighty water witch (1519). Ã¢â¬ This is an example of suspension of disbelief because it is physically impossible for a human to swim under water for hours without breathing.The Anglo-Saxon society is a civilized society because while todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society creates horror movies for entertainment, the author creates the book, Beowulf, for the entertainment of his people. As stated above, a society is a community of people that have certain jobs they must perform. This definition of a society is a factor of what a civilized society is. In Anglo-Saxon culture, a leader and his comitatus have clear expectations. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, a leader leads the country and commands his people through the office of the prime minister.However, a leader in Anglo-Saxon culture does a little more than leading his country and commanding his people. In the book, Beowulf, there are two main leaders: Hrothgar (a Danish king) and Beowulf. These two leaders have the responsibility of bringing glory for their country. When Hrothgar took the throne after his father, he Ã¢â¬Å"led the Danes to such glory that comrades and kinsmen swore by his sword (65-66). Ã¢â¬ Beowulf brings glory to his country by killing Grendel, the beast that has been haunting Herot for a long time, and by killing GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Ã¢â¬Å"the mighty water witch (1519). Then when Beowulf becomes the king of Geatland, he Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦held it long and well (2208). Ã¢â¬ A s a leader has responsibilities, group members also have their responsibilities. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society, they are responsible of helping each other, but sometimes they do not always carry out the task. However, a comitatus in Anglo-Saxon society have the responsibility of helping the leader when he needs help. There was only one comitatus in Beowulf and they are BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s men. BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s comitatus are by his side during his three battles. However, BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s comitatus was readily available to help him in one out of the three battles.During the battle with Grendel, Ã¢â¬Å"all of BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s/Band had jumped from their beds, ancestral/Swords raised and readyÃ¢â¬ ¦(795-796). Ã¢â¬ This is only battle that BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s comitatus is readily available in to help. During BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s battle with GrendelÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, the Danes left the swamp thinking Beowulf had died, but Ã¢â¬Å"the Geats stayed, sat sadly, watching,/Imagining they saw their lord but not believing/ They would ever see him again(1602-1603). Ã¢â¬ It is here that we start to see that the role of the comitatus start to change because the comitatus are at shore while Beowulf was under water, so, if Beowulf eeded their help, they would not be able to help him. In BeowulfÃ¢â¬â¢s last battle, the battle against the dragon, Ã¢â¬Å"none of his comrades/ Came to him, helped him (2596-2597)Ã¢â¬ when Beowulf could not fight the dragon alone, they also ran away for their lives. At this point in the story, the role of a comitatus is no more. The Anglo-Saxon society is civilized only when the leaders and team members, the comitatus, carry out responsibilities. The Anglo-Saxon society is civilized because they believe in monsters through stories, and their leaders and comitatus have responsibilities, although sometimes the comitatus do not perform their responsibility.It is because they do not perform their duty in the battle with the dragon that the age of warriors end s. One can argue that the age of warriors is a civilized time period, however, when the comitatus ran away from the battle, it is there that signs of an uncivilized civilization is seen. Therefore, it can be said that Ã¢â¬Å"now the giving of swords, of golden/ Rings and rich estates, is over,/ Ended for you and everyone who shares/ Your blood: when the brave Geats hear/ How you bolted and ran none of your race/ Will have anything left but their lives(2884-2888). Ã¢â¬
Thursday, November 7, 2019
MBA project by Chetan Akhare Essays MBA project by Chetan Akhare Essay MBA project by Chetan Akhare Essay Except for the strong will bestowed by almighty to pursue the study with patience and sincerity I would have not been able to complete it. I am grateful to our director Dry Sandy Chording, Proof. D. P. Visionary my mentor Mr.. Saran, Mr.. Vicar Hate for all the support given during data collection which has precisely assisted my accomplishment. I am also thankful to my family and my friends without whom it wouldnt have been possible to complete this research. I sincerely thank all the people who knowingly or unknowingly helped me in the work. Mauritius revenues totaled approximately 73. 3 billion rupees in 2009-2010. Its operating profit as of 2009-2010 is 75 billion rupees while its net profit comes to 6. 8 billion rupees. The company has two manufacturing facilities located at Surgeon ND Amnesia, south of New Delhi, India, which have an annual combined capability to produce over a 12 lash (12, 00,000) passenger car units. The company is planning to invest 17 billion rupees in the Amnesia plant.. Marti is known for its hatchback cars, especially the Marti 800. Other popular hatchback models include the Marti Zen and the Alto. It offers fourteen brands and over one hundred and fifty variants Marti 800, Omni, EEOC, Alto, Alto-SKI, A-star, Wagons, Swift, Ritz and Still, Gypsy, SUB Grand Vital, sedans SEX and Swift Dizzier. Marti Suzuki introduced factory fitted CNN option on 5 models across vehicle segments. These include EEOC, Alto, Still, Wagon R and Sex. Marti Suzuki has employee strength over 7,600 (as at end March 2010). In 2009-10, the company sold a record units including 1,47,575 units which we exported primarily to Europe, the remaining 870,790 sold in India. In the third quarter of 2009-2010, the company sold 258, 026 units. Thus, in March 2010, Marti Suzuki had an India market share of 53. 3 per cent of the Indian passenger car market of 16, 33,752 passenger car units. Marti Suzuki will be investing around RSI. 1,250 core (RSI 12. 5 billion) on capacity expansion of the K-series engines between 2010 and 2012. The expanded annual capacity will be over 7 lash units from the present 5 lash units of K-series engine cars. This will be a progressive investment to be completed by 2012. It has a sales network is 802 centers in 555 towns and cities across India. The customer service support network comprises of 2,740 workshops in over 1 ,335 towns and cities. In 2008, Marti Suzuki India Limited, unveiled a National Road Safety Mission under which it would train 500,000 people in safe driving in 3 years at 61 Marti Driving Schools and 4 Institutes of Driving Training and Research (DIRT) in Delhi, Durance and Fedora. History of Marti In 1981, Marti was launched. The company was started by the Government of India and was initially called Marti Technical Services Private Limited. The first Managing Director of the company was Sandy Gandhi, late-Indian Prime Minister During the period of 1985 to 1996, a few other significant developments took place including Suzuki taking up 50% stake in Marti, leading to a 50-50 Joint venture between Marti and the Government of India and over 60 per cent of its parts being produced in India leading to lower costs of production as the parts didnt have to be imported from abroad. When asked why Suzuki was chosen as the partner of this established corporation, the chairman of Marti, Mr.. R. C Braggart said that the company went to Japan and none of the companies out of Ionians, Mediumistic and Dadaists were ready to bring 40 per cent equity in India. Suzuki was the only company which agreed to bring 26 per cent equity in India and raise it to 40 per cent thereafter. The first car that the company produced was a four-door Marti 800 and the second car that the company produced was a Multi-legality Vehicle called the Omni. Between 1994 and 1996 Marti released the Esteem, the Gypsy, the Omni, the Gypsy King, Zen and Esteem. It also opened a second plant in Amnesia whose capacity at the time of opening was units. In 2000 Marti launched a call center. This was the first time a car company had ever launched a call center in India. In this year, Marti setup a website for its Wagon-R car, introduced a new model of the Zen, got the RITE National Award for its safety initiative, traffic management and environment protection, launched the Baleen and the Wagon R with electric power steering, Joined hands with Summits for providing after-sales service and introduced the Suzuki Alto. The Surgeon plant ad stopped production due to a strike by the employees. Marti introduced its first CNN car in 2001. In the same year Marti invested 550 core rupees in manufacturing cars. In 2002, Marti launched Marti Finance to offer financial services like extended warranty and finance for car insurance. It also hiked its car prices and launched the Versa. This was a good year for Marti in exports as it produced 16,000 cars for an order to Europe. In the next few years Marti got into collaboration with various companies to launch car-selling schemes. They partnered with State Bank of India to launch a chem. where each branch of the bank would sell a Marti car. The company also tied-up with Reliance Industries Limited for lease and fleet management. This was the same year Kumar Mangle Barilla Joined Marti as an independent director. From 2005 2007 Marti became the market leader of Indian cars and in 2006 unveiled the new Wagon-R in Punjab. In 2007, Marti launched the SEX sedan. Mission To provide a wide range of modern, high quality fuel efficient vehicles in order to meet the need of different customers, both in domestic and export markets. To provide maximum value for money to their customers through mutinous improvement of products and services. Marti has a network of 391 sales outlets across 230 cities all over India. The service network covers 1,113 towns and cities, bolstered by 2,142 authorized services out lets. The companys change in strategy and emphasis on developing effective marketing communications was Vision The leader in the India Automobile Industry, Creating Customer Delight and Shareholders Wealth; A pride of India We must be an internationally competitive company in terms of our products and services.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Mike Pence Bio - Vice President Under Donald Trump Mike Pence is aÃ former congressmanÃ andÃ governor of IndianaÃ who was chosen by Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump to be his running mate in the 2016 election. Both Trump and Pence were elected. Pence is described as a conservatives conservative and was seen as a safe pick for the often erratic and mercurial reality-television star.Ã Trump announced his choice of a running mate in typical Trump fashion, by posting the news on Twitter. He tweeted: I am pleased to announce that I have chosen Governor Mike Pence as my Vice Presidential running mate.Ã Pence later tweeted:Ã Honored to join realDonaldTrump and work to make America great again. In announcing Pence as his running make, Trump sought to cast the Republican ticket as the law and order candidates. Trump and Pence sought to contrast themselves with Democratic presidential nominee Hillary Clinton, whose use of a personal email server drew fire from the FBI and involvement in numerous other scandals earned her the nickname crooked Hillary. Trump made the announcement on July 15, 2016, just three days before the start of that yearsÃ Republican National Convention in Cleveland, Ohio. Trumps timing was typical in modern presidential politics. TheÃ party nominees often announce their choice of running mates in the days and weeks leading up to the nominating conventions. Only twice have theyÃ waited until the conventions. What a differenceÃ between crooked Hillary Clinton and Mike Pence ... Hes aÃ solid, solid person, Trump said in introducing Pence. Trump described Pence as my partner in this campaign. Reaction toÃ Trumps Choice of Running Mate Trumps selection of Pence as a running mate was seen as both a safe pick and one that could come with potential pitfalls. Trump will benefit from Pences solid conservative credentials, particularly when it comes to social issues such as abortion and gay rights. Pence is an outspoken opponent of abortion rights and fierce defender of religious freedom. He came under fire in 2015 for signing a law that many believed would have allowed Indiana business owners to deny service to gays and lesbians on religious grounds. Having Pence on the Republican ticket could win votes from religious conservatives who are not convinced Trump has the same convictions. Trump, who was registered as a Democrat for more than eight years in the 2000s, has remained relatively silent on social issues such as abortion and gay rights. Pences aversion to the in-your-face style politickingÃ could also complement Trumps more abrasive style of campaigning. Trump is unpredictable, forceful and, at times, impolite. Pence is predictable, some might say to a fault. Pence does not shy from a fight, but forceful is not a word that is used often to describe him. Pence is Midwestern polite,Ã Andrew Downs, director of the Mike Downs Center for Indiana Politics at Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne, wrote in The Washington Post. On the downside: Pence is seen as somewhat ... bland. Boring. Too conventional. Hes alsoÃ - againÃ - socially conservative. Very socially conservative. And that, some pundits believe, could turn off moderate Republicans and independent voters. Ã¢â¬Å"Mike sees himself as a champion of a very culturally conservative set of values that represent small-town Middle America,Ã¢â¬ Ã Leslie Lenkowsky, a former professor at Indiana University, told The New York Times.Ã Ã¢â¬Å"He sees his role as protecting them.Ã¢â¬ Other Potential Running Mates Pence was among three people Trump was seriously considering for the vice presidency. The other two were New Jersey Gov. Chris Christie and former House Speaker Newt Gingrich.Ã Pence, Christie and Gingrich were on Trumps final short list of potential running mates.Ã Trump claimed Pence was his first choice all during the vetting process. At least one published report indicated, however, indicated that Trump had sought to reverse course after the news media began reporting he had chosen the Indiana governor. Trump denied those reports. Indiana Gov. Mike Pence was my first choice, Trump said. The Clinton campaign, however, seized on claims Trump was waffling over his running mate. It released an ad with the line:Ã Donald Trump. Always divisive. Not so decisive. Pences Political Career Pence served 12 years in the House of Representatives as the congressman from Indianas 2nd and 6th Congressional Districts. He was later elected governor of Indiana and was serving his first four-year term when Trump asked him to join the 2016 presidential ticket. Heres a summary of Pences political career: 1986: Ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives.1988:Ã Ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives.2000: Won election to Indianas 2nd Congressional District seat.2002: Won re-election to the seat, which was renumbered the 6th Congressional District. He also won re-election to two-year terms in 2004, 2006, 2008 and 2010.Ã 2012: Won the Indiana governor election and took office in January 2013.2016: Chosen as Trumps vice presidential nominee. Pence held two prominent leadership posts in the House: chairman of the Republican Study Committee and chairman of the House Republican Conference.Ã 3 Major PenceÃ Controversies One of the most high-profile controversies surrounding Pence came during his tenure as governor of Indiana. The Periods for Pence movement was launched after Pence signed a strict anti-abortion law that banned women from getting the procedure if their motivation was to prevent the birth of a disabled child. Ã¢â¬Å"I believe that a society can be judged by how it deals with its most vulnerable- the aged, the infirm, the disabled and the unborn, Pence said after signing the law in March 2016.Ã The law, he said, will ensure the dignified final treatment of the unborn and prohibits abortions that are based only on the unborn childs sex, race, color, national origin, ancestry, or disability, including Down syndrome.Ã The Periods for Pence movement protest the law, saying it treats women like children and is too intrusive. One provision of the law requires anyÃ miscarried fetus to beÃ interred or cremated by a facility having possession of the remains. On Facebook, the Periods for Pence movement mocked the provisionÃ and urged women to flood the governors office with calls. Fertilized eggs can be expelled during a womans period without a woman even knowing that she might have had the potential blastocyst in her. Therefore, any period could potentially be a miscarriage without knowledge. I would certainly hate for any of my fellow Hoosier women to be at risk of penalty if they do not properly dispose of this or report it. Just to cover our bases, perhaps we should make sure to contact Governor Pences office to report our periods. We wouldnt want him thinking that THOUSANDS OF HOOSIER WOMEN A DAY are trying to hide anything, would we?Lets make our bodies Mikes business for real, if this is how he wants it. Another major controversy was Pences signing of theÃ Religious Freedom Restoration Act in 2015, which came under fire across the United States from critics who contended it allowed business owners to refuse service to gays and lesbians based on their religious beliefs. Pence later signed a revised version of the lawÃ that stripped out the controversial provisions and said there had been misunderstanding about the original versions.Ã This law has become a subject of great misunderstanding and controversy across our state and nation. However we got here, we are where we are, and it is important that our state take action to address the concerns that have been raised and move forward.Ã¢â¬ Ã Early in Pences political career, he was embarrassed when it was discovered he used nearly $13,000 inÃ donations to his 1990 congressional campaign to pay the mortgage on his house, as well as cover other personal expenses including his credit card bill, car payments and groceries. While not illegal at the time, Pences personal use of political donations cost him the election that year. He apologized to voters and described his behavior asÃ Ã¢â¬Å"an exercise in naivete.Ã¢â¬ Professional Career Pence, like many members of Congress and governors, is an attorney by trade.Ã He also hosted a conservative talk radio show in the 1990s called theÃ The Mike Pence Show, onceÃ describing himself as Rush Limbaugh on decaf.Ã Faith Pence once considered entering the priesthood, according to The New York Times.Ã He has described himself as an evangelical Catholic. He has also said he is Ã¢â¬Å"a Christian, a conservative and a Republican, in that order.Ã¢â¬ Education Pence graduated with a bachelors degree in historyÃ fromÃ Hanover College inÃ Hanover, Indiana, in 1981. A college profile of Pence says heÃ served as president of United Campus Ministries Board and on the staff of the student newspaper, The Triangle. He would be the second Hanover College graduate to be vice president. The first was 1841 graduateÃ Thomas Hendricks, who was vice presidentÃ under Grover Cleveland. Pence earned a law degree from Indiana UniversitysÃ Robert H. McKinney School of Law inÃ Indianapolis in 1986. He graduated fromÃ Columbus North High School in Columbus, Indiana. Personal Life Pence was bornÃ in Columbus, Bartholomew County, Indiana, on June 7, 1959. His father was the manager of a gas station in town.Ã He is married to Karen Pence. The couple got married in 1985 and have three children:Ã Michael, Charlotte and Audrey.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
The Role of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations in the Conservation of Fish Stocks - Research Paper Example Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the Agreement came into effect on 4 August 1995 for the conservation and management of straddling fish stock, and highly migratory fish stocks. Part VII of the Agreement deals with living resources of the high seas through Article 116, Article 117, Article 118, Article 119 and Article 120. Before delving deep into the functions of the fisheries management organisations it is of great concern to know what the UNCLOS Articles state on the role of the regional fishery management organisations. Under Article117, the concerned state has a responsibility to follow with regard to its citizens assess for management of the marine resources of the high seas. Cooperation with other states in this regard is central to the conservation of marine resources on the high seas (UNCLOS). Under Article 118, the spirit of Article 117 is taken ahead through cooperation states shall take fresh steps and enter into accords with other states for commercially using the similar water resources or dissimilar water resources on the same region with the purpose of conserving the water resources. It is the responsibility of the states to set up regional or sub-regional fisheries organisations (UNCLOS). (a) found suitable as based on scientific knowledge on which the concerned states can depend upon for preserving the fish populations of cropped species at standards that ensure long-term production as based on suitable environmental and economic considerations, particularly of the developing countries, considering the fishing methods at all levels of fishing Ã¢â¬â regional, sub-regional and international; (b) States pay attention to the impact on the species related to or relying on harvested species with the aim of preserving fish populations of such related or relying on species beyond limits at which their populations could not be increased through breeding.
Friday, November 1, 2019
Information Needs for the AIS - Case Study Example However, changes in the technology of production in a company may necessarily not need be preceded by a change managing of information systems concerning accounting management. Importantly any firm seeking to undertake a change in accounting management systems has to evaluate critically evaluate and settle on an alternative that best solves the problems at hand (Allahyari & Ramazani, 2011). The reason is that the management accounting systems (MAS) conditions depend on the degree to which the causes of change are known to the organization as well as their indicators. Therefore, any hurried change in accounting management in response to technological changes in the manufacturing department could have a serious security risk to an extent of comprising the integrity and security of any data involved in the accounting management 2. The second misinformation is that new information technology guarantees improved accounting management in a company. While IT is a critical tool in accounting management in many firms purchasing and installation of systems and personnel to implement, IT strategies might not be enough to a company. This is because, the integrity of the systems and process depend on those operating the systems and the value that these systems have to the organization in question (De Marco et al., 2012). For instance, there is a high dependency on the ethics and personal responsibility in ensuring effective use of IT systems, a factor that has to be considered in rolling out such systems. For a firm to benefit fully from IT facilities and services in accounting there has to be effective IT governance, proper information system strategies, vision, IT strategic alignment to the strategic vision and mission of the organization (De Marco et al., 2012). 3. Cybercrimes and cyber-attacks are commons resources that only require government intervention to solve. The increasing cases of cyber-attacks in accounting departments and have led industry players to call
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Is death denied in contemporary Australian society Provide examples to support your argument - Essay Example The emergence of hospices and palliative care teams has done much to improve this difficult area of healthcare. Nursing and hospice care professionals, rather than doctors and surgeons, are more routinely faced with dilemmas which related to the dignity of the person, and the way that psychological and social factors can impact positively or negatively on the experiences of patients, relatives and medical staff. This is an area which is less well researched, and the present paper considers the widely held assumption that Australian society generally denies death, and seeks to protect its citizens from facing up to the emotional consequences of death for themselves and their close relatives. At the present time there are heated debates about the ethical and moral issues surrounding death, ranging from support for medically assisted deaths, to vehement opposition of any intervention that could potentially hasten death. These are important issues which Australian society must tease out and openly examine if it is to provide the kind of end of life care that patients expect. The alleged tendency of Australian society to deny death could be seen as endangering attempts to improve end of life care. If people prefer to distance themselves from death, and to avoid talking or thinking about it then it is very difficult to work out what kind of treatment or care would be their ideal preference. For this reason it is important to consider attitudes and cultural values on a wide scale when considering medical and social processes. A medical service which is out of tune with the prevailing culture is unlikely to provide a sensitive and appropriate level of care. A closer look at this intriguing area of healthcare studies reveals that the whole Ã¢â¬Å"death denyingÃ¢â¬ label may not be quite as accurate an assessment as it appears on first sight. Historians such as Jalland (2002) and Davis and George (1990) trace the evolution of Australian beliefs and customs from the ab original concepts of Ã¢â¬Å"The Eternal DreamingÃ¢â¬ to the experiences of Australian soldiers in the First World War who were taught to repress the horrors of mass warfare with the so-called Ã¢â¬Å"stiff upper lip,Ã¢â¬ (Jalland, 2002, 306) and to a much more mixed modern situation where multiple ideologies and customs struggle for prominence. Despite a very evident diversity in modern Australia, this notion that the country is a Ã¢â¬Å"death denyingÃ¢â¬ nation persists into the present day. Evidence for this Ã¢â¬Å"denial of death thesisÃ¢â¬ is found in the ideas of social scientists in the period from 1955 to 1985. (Zimmermann and Rodin, 2004, 121). Certain traditions such as elaborate funerals and mourning rituals for bereaved families were noted as being important markers of the transition from life to death, in earlier historical periods. In traditional Catholic societies, for example, it was usual to hold a wake to mark the departure of a beloved family member, fol lowed by commemorative mass celebrations. In Jewish societies there are similar commemorative events, and these rituals are deliberately communal and inclusive, providing a supportive framework for bereaved families to lean on while experiencing the first painful stages of loss. (OÃ¢â¬â¢Gorman, 1998, 1131-1132) The community as a whole took part in these rituals, and death in such a context
Sunday, October 27, 2019
Organisational Structure of Geodrill Limited Introduction Geodrill Limited is an exploration drilling contractor, which was incorporated in the Isle of Man in June 1998 and centers its attention on the mining industry in West Africa. It operates in 3 West African countries, which are Burkina Faso, Ghana and the Cote DIvoire through an entirely owned subsidiary, Geodrill Ghana Limited. The Head Office is located in Accra, Ghana and manages operations throughout the West African region. However, there are only two operating entities, Geodrill Ghana Limited and Geodril CI SARL in Cote DIvoire . Geodrill Ltd (Isle of Man) operates contracts in Burkina Faso. The two entities are whole owned subsidiaries of Geodrill Ltd ( Isle of Man). Geodrill Ltd. has 2 issued shares owned by Blue Croft Limited and Red Croft Limited. All drill rigs were bought new except ore 650/1 which was bought second hand in the year 2000. Geodrill started operations in Ghana in 1998 with one UDR 900 multi-purpose drill rig and in 1999 added another. At the end of December 1999, Geodrill owned 10 UDR multi-purpose Drill rigs all with boosters, auxiliary compressors, modern fleet of MAN trucks, track support vehicles and light vehicles. Geodrill also owns three core only Sandvik DE 710 crawler mounted drill rigs and two Auztex Air core truck mounted rigs. Current expansion in 2010 includes two additional rigs bringing total fleet to seventeen. It is envisaged that by the end of 2010 the fleet size in terms of drill rigs will be twenty. The rigs to be added in 2010, while still of the UDR make (have recently changed to Sandvik) depart from existing strategy by being specialized drill rigs. Two of the rigs will offer RAB services while the other offer Air Core. The entire maintenance operations of Geodrill Limited is carried out at Anwian Kwanta a suburb of Kumasi in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. It is based on a 10 acre land which has a modern workshop, offices and accommodation for both expatriates and nationals. The workshop strictly adheres to world class safety standards. Our health and safety and environmental program was designed by Tracmin to at a minimum comply with Australian safety standards. Ownership and Directors Geodrill Limited has a Trust set up by Dave Harper, currently the Managing Director of the group. He is also the Chairman and CEO of Geodrill Ghana Limited, the operating entity in West Africa. The Trust is held by the City Trust firm based in Douglas, the Isle of Man, on behalf of the Harper Family Trust of Perth, Australia. It has 2 issued shares. The other director of Geodrill Ghana Limited is Terry Burling who is also the Operations Manager of the firm. Figure 1: Organisational Structure of GeodrillÃ Ã The Organisational Structure Management Dave Harper is the Managing Director and CEO. He has about 30 years of experience in the drilling industry having worked both in Australia and West Africa. He started working in Ghana in 1991 as General Manager of SMS, an exploration drilling firm. Mr. Harper, a driller by profession, resigned in 1996 and set up Geodrill 2 years later. The CEO is directly responsible for project flow and contracting with clients, client relations, invoicing and acquisition of major equipment. He also leads in setting corporate and business strategy. He is assisted by 2 departmental managers. Terry Burling is the Operations Manager with 20 years of experience in the drilling industry. He previously worked with SMS in New Zealand, Australia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and in Ghana. Fortunately for the company, Terry Burling is an expert in both the mechanical and exploration aspects of the profession. His skills span drilling, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and fabrication. Greg Conroy is the FA Manager. He has worked in that capacity at several exploration drilling and mining firms including SMS (Ghana), Equigold CI SARL (Ivory Coast). He has over 20 years of experience in the industry. Conroy started working with the company in December 2008, having taken over from a Ghanaian who had been in the position since Geodrill was established and also previously worked with SMS. The FA Manager is directly responsible for managing relationships with all external stakeholders except clients. The Structure of the Firm Geodrill has about 120 staff organized into 2 departments, Operations and Administration. There are 4 sections under Operations: Exploration, Maintenance, Stores and HSE. Exploration performs the drilling required by clients; the core activity of the company. The Exploration workers are organized in crews of 4 per rig per shift of 12 hours, therefore 8 per workday. A Site Supervisor manages all aspects of the project being undertaken including a cash expense budget, accommodation, liaises with the clients representation usually a geologist, and supervises the crew. If its a large project with 2 or more rigs present, a store is set-up and stocked with consumables. In this case too there may be one or more supervisor. The Exploration staff typically constitutes about 80% of the staff strength. Maintenance provides engineering back up services for repairs and maintenance. This section also fabricates a lot of equipment including heavy duty, pneumatic vehicles. They work out of one of the most advanced workshops in West Africa and drive out to offer on-site support in their modified and well-equipped Land Cruiser pick-ups. The Store section manages the stock of consumables, fuel and spare parts. Though many firms in the industry treat stock as finance and accounting function because of its effect on profitability, Geodrill has placed its Store as Operations to better ensure closer integration with the core functions of the business. Decisions on purchases are made with paramount regard to the necessity of the item for project execution rather than cost or any other consideration. Requests routinely originate from the Supervisors and are validated by the Operations Manager. The Health, Safety and Environment section oversees the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of Health, Safety and Enviornment standards that, at a minimum, are required to conform to Australian mandated standards. The Australian standard is regarded as the most stringent for drilling firms globally and much higher than what is required in Ghana. Setting that as the minimum standard is a purely discretionary decision by Geodrills Chief Executive Officer. The Administration department is made up of Accounts, Human Resource, Information Technology and Logistics. The Accounts section is responsible for all financial reporting including management reports and statutory reports. Geodrill tracks income by drill rig and by project. Major direct expenses such as fuel are tracked by drill rig and project. The Accounts section also manage the monthly cash budget. Human Resource section coordinates with departmental managers in the recruitment process, the setting of salaries and promotions. Salary levels are determined according to the hierarchy (organizational structure) and each band has 3 sub-levels. Junior employees earn a basic salary and overtime for work done beyond 8 hours in a weekday. For senior employees, a fixed salary that consolidates both a base pay and overtime is determined and their pay does not vary by the hours done. The section prepares the payroll and executes payments. The Logistics section act as a go-between with Stores, and the rest of the company to ensure that procurements, imports and exports and immigration requirements for expatriate workers are smoothly executed. Services Geodrill provides Reverse Circulation and Core Drilling services. The object of all prospective drilling is to get samples from different depths below the surface. The two basic methods are cuttings recovery and core recovery. Reverse circulation drilling falls in the first category and diamond core drilling in the second. Reverse Circulation Reverse Circulation is the method of choice for obtaining consistently high quality rock chip samples with speed and efficiency. Geodrill provides reverse circulation drilling using the latest Face Sampling hammers and equipment drilling holes with 140mm diameter to depths of between 50 400 meters. In terms of pricing, this drilling methodology is positioned in the middle. It is more expensive than RAB and Air Core drilling but less costly than diamond drilling. It is the most commonly used method. It collects samples from depth by pulverizing the rock which is then blown up through an inner tube and collected in a sample bag. Diamond Core Drilling This technique is used to drill to about 1500m deep. A diamond-impregnated drill bit cuts a core of rock hence the name Diamond core. The core sample is removed at intervals and catalogued. This is a much more expensive drilling method. Directional Drilling Geodrill provides the Deep Directional drilling using Down Hole Motor and Wedging; to control deviation so target is achieved, to intersect targets below inaccessible locations, to alter course of a drill hole to intersect target and to allow multiple target intersections by deviating branch holes from a parent hole. Two other types of drilling, common in the industry but not previously offered by Geodrill, are RAB and Air core drilling. These are most ideal for shallow depths, are speedier and cheaper for clients. THE EXPLORATION INDUSTRY IN WEST AFRICA Market and Industry Geodrills current client list includes Newmount Ghana Gold, Golden Star Resources, Keegam Resources, Perseus Mining, Azumah Resources, Castle Minerals, Lihir Equigold, in Cote dIvoire, Ampella Mining and Gryphon Minerals both in Burkina Faso. Geodrill is currently the market leader in Ghana with about 35% of the market share. In 2009, 50% operating capacity in Ghana, 20% in Cote dIvoire and 30% in Burkina Faso. Geodrill hopes to increase operations in Burkina Faso in the near future as that industry is less saturated than Ghana in terms of competition and there are a lot of contracts readily available. For 2010, the order book is full including 2 new rigs on order. Geodrill is still receiving invitations to tender on contracts all over West Africa in Gold and base metals. Geodrills competitors in Ghana are Boart Longyear, AMS exploration, Pontil Minerix, Drillmasters and Burwash. In Cote dIvoire, their competitors are Boart Longyear CI, Ore-ex and Drill ex. In Burkina Faso, its Boart Longyear BR and West Africa Drilling Services. Current industry challenges include price competitiveness, and the labour market beginning to tighten. Opportunities include gold and commodities boom, an influx of active exploration companies into West Africa and improving political stability in the region. The mining, energy and infrastructure markets are expected to see the hightes neer to medium term growth in the sub Saharan African region. In general, mining companies with a higher percentage of long term renewable contracts are viewed as being lower risk and Geodrill prefers to deal with such clients. Analysis of the Industry There is no substitute for exploration drilling services in the mining industry. The exploration process progresses from initial studies of the geological structure of an area, a history of mining and other indicators of prospective potential. However, actual samples must always be collected both from the surface and at depth to determine the actual presence of mineral. This collection of samples from depth can only be done by drilling down into the ground. The threat of new entrants probably offers competitive pressure to existing firms in the West African market. The mining industry is made up of many small firms but dominated by a few very large firms. Exploration drilling, though it has a tangible end product in the form of samples, is really a service and depends as much on relationships as on the quality of the sample. It is a capital-intensive business but any entity that can get access to about $3m in start-up capital can start with a second hand rig, some spare parts and consumables. The exploration drilling firms usually operate under the umbrella of the client and so are indirectly regulated hence regulatory issues will not hinder a start-up. The exploration drilling business is characterised by short drill programmes (contract duration of 3 months to 1 year). Each drill programme can be properly viewed as a real option, and determines the next step for the client. The level of activity is driven by the ease of fundraising on the capital markets and the price of gold as it determines the value of any find. The drilling service is homogenous in nature, hardly differentiated except by the speed and efficiency of execution and the safety record of the drilling firm. There is not much collaboration among the firms. Suppliers of major inputs such as drilling consummables are quite powerful when the industry is booming. When the price of gold falls or the capital markets are not doing well, there is usually an excess of serviceable second hand equipment available. This dilutes the power of the suppliers somewhat. The sources of consumables are many hence the suppliers here are much less powerful than the suppliers of equipment. There are two types of clients: Mining firms and exploration firms. The mining firms have operating mines and earn revenue from selling the gold that they mine. The exploration firms hold concessions and carry out drill programs to determine their potential. Exploration firms do not earn operating revenues; they earn a return eventually by selling the concession if it is proven to have the potential to yield some gold. Therefore, exploration firms finance their drill programs by raising equity on the capital markets. The clients are very powerful and price sensitive. Drill programs tend to be one of the largest costs of the client. For both types of clients, it determines the life and value of the business. Accounting Policies Drill rigs undergo major rebuilds to extend their life span every 3 5 years. The cost is capitalized. Depreciation rates are 10% for drill rigs, 20% as plant and equipment, 20% on motor vehicles, 20% on furniture and fittings and 5% on land and buildings. Currency of record is the US dollar. Audited financial statements are submitted to the internal revenue service and taxes are paid in US dollars. Geodrill is permitted by the Minerals Commission and Bank of Ghana to receive at least 50% and Bank of Ghana to receive at least 50% of its drilling income in US dollars. Financial year ends on 31st December. Organisation Strategy From inception, management decided it did not want a Workers Union. Management instead formed an informal workers committee which is made up of senior employees and who are nationals for that matter. Management then acts as a union and seeks to ensure the general welfare of workers in consultation with the workers committee. This is itself is unique in an industry where unions are common. 2. Geodrill operates only in West Africa whereas its key competitors operates globally. From Ghana the chairman who also doubles as the chief executive officer oversees everything. This gives Geodrill the advantage to follow the market more closely and adopt quickly. For its competitors, there might be a general manager heading a particular region who will lack final authority on decision making. 3. Geodrill adheres to a strict healthy, safety and environment policy and as much as possible used brand new equipment which are serviced regularly and kept in top shape by the operations department from its workshop which is fitted out with the most advanced equipment needed. Competitors often deploy other rigs that have been in service in other parts of the globe and this gives Geodrilll an edge over competitors when it comes to contract execution. 4. Geodrill has more nationals in their top hierarchy than its competitors. Locals are found in management positions usually reserved for expatriates among their competitors. This enables management to keep the wage bill lower than that of their competitors because nationals severally earn lower than expatriates while at the same time motivating nationals to give off their best because they know the top positions are not kept for only expatriates. 5. Geodrill pays higher than market rates and keeps job content interesting so as to attract the best men available and also maintain them. To lay off full time permanent employees however, is difficult under the labour laws of Ghana and other West African states hence Geodrill keeps 80% of nationals on 2 year contracts renewable so far as the company has contracts to support number of staff. If rigs become idle then the workers on that rig can be laid off with a months salary in lieu of notice and are recalled when a contract is secured for that rig.
Friday, October 25, 2019
OthelloÃ Ã Tragic and Serious Othello, a play by William Shakespeare, takes place in Venice during the invasion of the island of Cyprus by the Turks. The protagonist of the story, Othello, is a newlywed, Moorish general with a very gullible nature. The antagonist of the story is Iago, an officer under Othello who wishes to be promoted to lieutenant, but the position was given to the young and attractive Cassio. Other major characters in the play are Desdemona, Othello's wife who is accused of having an affair with Cassio. In addition, there are Roderigo, a Venetian who is deeply in love with Desdemona; and Emilia (Iago's wife) who could have prevented the death of Desdemona. The tone of the story is tragic and serious. Meanwhile, there isn't any point of view because this is a play and a play doesn't normally have a narrator. Shakespeare lets the reader make up his/her own imagination with the characters' words and behavior. Since Othello is the protagonist, he is explained in more detail. Although Othello is a brave warrior, he is a jealous person; his jealousy also prevails over his good sense. The whole play depicts the fact that jealousy causes corruption. There are many conflicts found in Othello, and person vs. person is one of them. An example is when Iago seeks revenge against Othello and Cassio because of his anger and jealousy. Person vs. society appears when Desdemona's father Brabantio, disapproves her marriage to Othello because he is several years older than Desdemona, from a different class, and a different race. An internal conflict of person vs. himself is found when Othello is in a dilemma about whether or not should he believe that Des demona is being unfaithful to him. Othello loves and trusts Desdemona until his jealousy is aroused by the cruel manipulations of Iago. Iago's intention was to persuade Othello to believe that Desdemona is having an affair with Cassio. As Iago succeeds in convincing Othello that Desdemona is guilty of adultery, it leads to the climax of the play. And so Othello must face emotions he can't deal with. His jealousy drives him insane, and his judgment is replaced with anger and hate. At this time, the reader notices that the death of Desdemona is inevitable. Othello smothers her, and he eventually kills himself when he knows that Iago falsely accused Desdemona. This also represents the tragedy of the play.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
This paper considers the impact of Assessment for Learning on kids Ã¢â¬Ës advancement in a peculiar strand of the Primary Maths Curriculum. It does so foremost through a reappraisal of the relevant literature, and so employs some empirical illustrations to exemplify how the rhythm had helped to procure larning points in a peculiar context. The specific strand under consideration is the resolution of multi-step jobs, Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦and jobs affecting fractions, decimals and per centums ; take and utilize appropriate computation schemes at each phase, including reckoner usage. Ã¢â¬Ë ( DCFS 2009 ) . Literature Review Changes in the professional model for the instruction and appraisal of Primary maths have been reflected in a invariably spread outing literature. This is now so expansive, that it can merely truly be reviewed here through some representative illustrations. There are two chief sub-genres which feature here: specifically, these are official publications, and scope of commercially produced texts which may be characterised as critical, professional, or vocational self-help literature. It is besides the instance that some generic texts on the topic of Primary Assessment for Learning may be pertinent here, although they do non associate specifically to mathematics. The official literature emphasises the holistic nature of appraisal by asseverating that Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦assessment of kids Ã¢â¬Ës accomplishments and advancement should be based on the expected acquisition results identified through the acquisition aims. In mathematics, measuring kids Ã¢â¬Ës advancement in a nucleus strand of acquisition should be informed by the aims in the strand. Ã¢â¬Ë ( DCFS 2009 ) . The fruition of this procedure may be visualized in the motive and authorization of the scholars themselves, supported by Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦Constructive feedback that identifies how kids Ã¢â¬Ës work and responses have led to successaÃâ Ã ¦ Ã¢â¬Ë this, it advises, should supply a Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦shared apprehension of the accomplishments on which to construct to do farther advancement. It helps kids to see how the following stairss take history of this success and are come-at-able. Ã¢â¬Ë ( DCFS 2009 ) . There is a sense in which this acknowledges that Assessment for L earning has an importance, over and above what is revealed in outcome-based consequences, i.e. those from standardized trials. In other words, the latter no longer implies that it can stand as Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦proxy for other sorts of larning. Ã¢â¬Ë ( Campbell et al. 2004: p.119 ) The commercially published literature is invariably being updated by texts which engage with official policy and course of study alterations, construing them for practicians and parents. However, the bulk of these, although they make some mention to assessment, make non make so in the footings now prescribed by the DCFS, i.e. , daily and periodic appraisal. This is perchance because these theoretical accounts have merely been runing in the official discourse for a comparatively short period. Overall, this genre may itself be split into sub-groups, the most important of which are the brooding or critical genre, and the vocational or self-help group. One of the most fecund governments within this group is Sharon Clarke, whose Targeting Assessment in the Primary Classroom: Schemes for Planning, Assessment, Pupil Feedback and Target Setting ( 1998 ) , Unlocking Formative Appraisal: Practical Schemes for Enhancing Pupils Ã¢â¬Ë Learning in the Primary Classroom, ( 2001 ) , and Active Lea rning Through Formative Assessment ( 2008 ) straddle consecutive developments in the instruction and appraisal of Primary mathematics. Besides helpful in these countries is Hansen Ã¢â¬Ës Primary Mathematicss: Widening Knowledge in Practice ( Achieving QTS Extending Knowledge in Practice ) ( 2008 ) , and David Clarke Ã¢â¬Ës Constructive Assessment in Mathematics: Practical Stairss for Classroom Teachers ( Key Resources in Professional Development ) , ( 1999 ) . As Shirley Clarke indicates, the Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦sharing of a learning purpose isaÃâ Ã ¦more composite than merely reiterating what is in the instructor Ã¢â¬Ës planaÃâ Ã ¦In order for the learning purpose to be shared efficaciously, it needs to be clear and unambiguous, so that the instructor can explicate it in a manner which makes sense. Ã¢â¬Ë ( 2001: p.20 ) This may be taken as supportive of the official place: it endorses the thought that be aftering should pull non merely on the acquisition result, but besides on the anterior cognition of the pupils in inquiry. If they are expected to objectively measure their ain advancement, they must understand the frame of mention, and be able to imagine the acquisition result, even if they have n't yet attained it. This thought is besides inexplicit in the thoughts of David Clarke: as he points out, earlier attacks to assessment focussed on Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦measuring the extent to which pupils possess a set of tools andaÃâ Ã ¦ the extent to which they can use them. Ã¢â¬Ë However, he farther indicates that Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦to be mathematically equipped, a pupil must besides understand the nature of mathematical tools and be able to choose the right tool for a given problem-solving state of affairs. Ã¢â¬Ë ( 1999: p.11 ) This position is besides endorsed in the contemplations of Hansen, who argues that, Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦it is possible to assist kids to larn mathematical content through efficaciously incorporating problem-solving, concluding and communicating into mathematics lessons. Ã¢â¬Ë ( Hansen 2008: p.5 ) Texts such as Gardner Ã¢â¬Ës emended aggregation, , Assessment and Learning, ( 2006 ) , Gipps and Murphy Ã¢â¬Ës A Fair Test? Assessment, Achievement and Equity, ( 1994 ) , and Taber Ã¢â¬Ës Classroom-based research and evidence-based pattern, ( 2007 ) , travel some manner to bridging the spread between the functionary and the educational literature, specifically by looking at how policy and course of study affairs are linked by research and political orientation. These are, nevertheless, non specifically devoted to Primary mathematics, and neither are they entirely accepting of the orthodoxies which pervade the official literature. Gipps and Murphy make the point that measuring appraisal is Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦not merely a inquiry of looking at the equity in the context of appraisal but besides within the course of study, as the two are closely related. Ã¢â¬Ë ( 1994: p.3 ) As Taber points out, practicians are at the terminal of a really long and frequently distant supply concaten ation when it comes to weighing the grounds on what is Ã¢â¬Ëbest pattern Ã¢â¬Ë . As they put it, Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦teachers are told what research has found out during their initial Ã¢â¬Å" preparation Ã¢â¬ , and are updatedaÃâ Ã ¦through classs and staff development yearss, but mostly through centralised official Ã¢â¬Å" counsel Ã¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬Ë ( 2007: p.4 ) This is reinforced by observers such as Rist, who argues that, Ã¢â¬ËWe are good past the clip when it is possible to reason that good research will, because it is good, act upon the policy procedure. Ã¢â¬Ë ( 2002: p.1002 ) . These are academic but non unimportant points in footings of the overall treatment, even if they are non peculiarly outstanding in the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours duties of the category instructor. The point is that, as brooding practicians, we might all profit from some consciousness of what shapes the models which inform our attack to learning and larning. With respect to the current Assessment for Learning conventions, the thoughts in Assessment for Learning, Beyond the black box ( Assessment Reform Group, 1999 ) , are acknowledged by the QCA to hold been constructive of the whole attack. ( QCA 2003: p.1 ) . As the latter province, Ã¢â¬ËThe survey posed three inquiries: is there grounds that bettering formative appraisal raises criterions? ; is there grounds that there is room for betterment in the pattern of appraisal? ; and is at that place grounds about how to better formative appraisal? This research grounds pointed to an unqualified Ã¢â¬Ëyes Ã¢â¬Ë as the reply to each of these inquiries. Ã¢â¬Ë ( QCA 2003: p.1 ) . These are of import points, as the instruction, larning and appraisal models which define modern-day pattern are deeply adaptative of them. Discussion/Example from Experience. A strand of the Primary course of study where twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours and periodic appraisal was found to be peculiarly of import in the overall Assessment for Learning attack, was procuring figure facts, relationships and ciphering. The illustrations used here are from Year 6 block E, particularly Ma2, Written and reckoner methods, and Ma2, work outing numerical jobs from Unit One, and focused on covering with mistakes and misconceptions. One context where appraisal was found to be peculiarly relevant was in covering with upper school ( i.e. Old ages 4, 5 and 6 ) acquisition of generation and division. The assessment procedure had to be multi-faceted, taking in all of the associated cognition and accomplishments, the mistakes and misconceptions which arose, and the modeling of inquiries to place the beginning of such jobs. This may be illustrated by concentrating on one illustration, taken from Year 6 Key Objective 2, Multiplying and dividing by powers of 10 and the a ssociatory jurisprudence, where normally, the unprepared or baffled scholar Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦Misuses half understood regulations about multiplying and dividing by powers of 10 and the associatory lawaÃâ Ã ¦ Ã¢â¬Ë ( 2009 ) . The of import thing about generation and division through consecutive add-on or minus severally, is that, one time mastered, they can show to scholars that the application of basic accomplishments will enable them to interrupt down apparently complex jobs into a manageable format. Multiplying or spliting a three figure figure by a two digit figure depends on the usage of a figure of accomplishments: cognition of figure facts, i.e. times tabular arraies, topographic point value, to rapidly measure the viability of an reply, and organizational accomplishments, i.e. being able to use the right stairss in the appropriate order. It may besides be utile to augment these with reckoner usage, in order to verify replies. The of import point here is that twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours and periodic appraisal Ã¢â¬â and brooding feedback from the scholars themselves Ã¢â¬â was indispensable in the planning, fliping and bringing of this input. The mutuality of each measure in these computations meant that the failure to put to death one measure, frequently resulted in the failure to finish the overall aim. For illustration, if times tabular arraies and generation by 10 and 100 were non firmly in topographic point, the scholar would acquire bogged down in the arithmetic. Conversely, the securing of one of the incremental accomplishments involved in these computations was a positive factor in the scholars Ã¢â¬Ë overall attack: i.e. , if they knew their times tabular arraies facts, topographic point value, or generation by 10 and 100 were in topographic point, it gave them a get downing point from which to analyze mistakes or jobs. For some scholars, this had the generic consequence of doing t hem gain that their long-run work in accomplishing these places of strength had a positive result, instead than being an abstract, stand-alone procedure. This in bend made them more interested in geting other general mathematics accomplishments. Looking beyond specific mathematics accomplishments, this may besides hold the leaning to develop the pupils Ã¢â¬Ë ain capacities for self-fulfillment and self-motivation. As the QCA points out, Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦In many schoolrooms, students do non comprehend the construction of the acquisition aims that give significance to their work. Therefore they are unable to measure their ain advancement. Ã¢â¬Ë ( QCA 2003: p.3 ) Accomplishment in a multi-step procedure such as long generation or division might therefore enable them to map out where they are within the overall criterions. However, it was merely through a combination of twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours and periodic appraisal that the practician could be confident of be aftering efficaciously with respect to these undertakings. There was no point in piecing Sessionss which relied on a scope of accomplishments when they were non unafraid, either in single scholars, or sufficiently across the cohort as a whole. In assorted ability groups, this attack was evidently the key the necessary distinction. The logical corollary to this is that dianoetic feedback from the scholars themselves was besides of import in specifying the following phase of planning, i.e. what worked, what did n't, who tried which method, were there any penchants etc. The entreaty of this activity besides lays in its all right balance of mental and pencil and paper methods, and the manner in which appraisal is the necessary concomitant to concrete computation. Overall, these experiences may be deemed supportive of the proposals of o bservers such as Clarke and Hansen, ( see above ) in that they emphasize the demand for the uninterrupted support of be aftering with appraisal. Summary, Analysis and Reflection: Deductions for Future Teaching. In drumhead, the decision of this paper is that both the literature and practical experience discussed here are reciprocally supportive of the demand for complimentary appraisal and planning. Outcome orientated consequences can exemplify single and whole school public presentation in certain contexts, but practicians need to be cognizant of appraisal in a holistic manner, as a day-to-day portion of their attack to learning and larning. As the QCA expresses it, Ã¢â¬ËaÃâ Ã ¦Teachers are sing an increased sense that students are working with them instead than for them. For illustration, students are inquiring for more inquiries or illustrations to pattern using their apprehension of a subject or to reiterate prep or trials if they have non met the criterion and the aims that they and the instructor have set. Ã¢â¬Ë ( QCA 2009: p.48 ) . Whilst this dynamic sounds really positive, practicians have new and different duties within it. In footings of appraisal, these can be itemised in the undermentioned waysaÃâ Ã ¦ Day to twenty-four hours: within this degree of appraisal, specific larning aims should explicitly communicated, and augmented with both equal and self appraisal as appropriate. Periodic: ideally, this should piece a broader overview of advancement across the topic for both scholar and instructor. It is besides an chance to interweave the national criterions in a sensitive manner with schoolroom pattern. The practician can utilize the penetrations gained from this procedure to inform both long and average term planning. Overall, it should be recognised that the ideal state of affairs, i.e. of self-motivated, self-actuating scholars, involved in their ain self-assessment, is improbable merely to Ã¢â¬Ëhappen Ã¢â¬Ë . Considered superficially, it might look that the practician Ã¢â¬Ës function in appraisal has lessened, whilst the balance has been taken up by the scholars themselves. The world is instead different: students will merely go equal and effectual assessors of their ain advancement if they are provided with the appropriate support and counsel. In a sense, this facilitating function is a much more ambitious and elusive one than that implied in a more top-down, didactic theoretical account. Besides, there are obvious jobs in sing the Ã¢â¬Ëlearner Ã¢â¬Ë as a passive or generalized facet of this attack: it is much more likely that there is a staggered and varicolored consumption of the theoretical account, as different scholars are engaged at their ain gait and degree. This in bend indic ates that, as with all facets of the course of study, the societal and emotional facets of acquisition should be taken into consideration.